"The escape from pain in surgical operations is a chimera... 'Knife' and 'pain'
in surgery are words which are always inseparable in the minds of patients"
(French surgeon Alfred-Armand-Louis-Marie Velpeau, 1839)
Anaesthesia and Anaesthetics
Opioids: past, present and future
Anaesthesia and Pain History Resources
Anaesthesia and Anaesthetics in Contemporary Medicine